The subzero cold pushing down into much of the U.S. is unlike cold weather felt in decades. The record-breaking cold is caused in part because of a "polar vortex," which one meteorologist says will send piles of polar air into the U.S. These temperatures can be dangerous, and officials in several states are warning residents to stay indoors and take precautions. Here's a look at some of the problems that arise when temperatures plummet and how to stay safe if you venture outdoors.
At temperatures of 15 to 30 below, exposed skin can get frostbitten in minutes and hypothermia can quickly set in.
"People need to protect themselves against the intense cold," said Dr. Brian Mahoney, medical director of emergency services at Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis. "They have to wear a hat, they have to have face protection."
Mahoney said mittens are better than gloves, layers of dry clothing are best, and anyone who gets wet needs to get inside.
"You can't be wearing high-heel shoes with your toes in nylons," he added. "That's a great way to get frostbite."
Hypothermia, when a person's total body temperature gets too low, could lead to unconsciousness or cardiac arrest. Frostbite, when extremities freeze, could lead to amputations.
Homeless people who have no relief from the bitter chill are at risk, but Mahoney said he's also treated people who simply used bad judgment, sometimes due to drinking alcohol.
The bottom line, Mahoney said, is to avoid the cold if you can -- or make sure all body parts are covered up and covered up well.
"You could die if you don't respect the environment you live in," he said.
Keeping vehicles in a garage is the most surefire way to ensure they will start in subzero conditions.
But for those who don't have access to a garage, it's important that they check the health of their vehicle's battery before the cold arrives, said Jason Jones, who works for Best Batteries in North Kansas City, Mo. -- where temperatures early Monday were forecast to reach 10 degrees below zero.
Most batteries less than three years old should be able to handle the cold, he said. Older batteries and ones that are on the verge of going dead often cannot even be jump-started once they have been exposed for an extended time to temperatures below zero.
"Some batteries you can't get back to life," Jones said. "Once they get to a certain point, they're done." (continued...)
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