Newsletters
News & Information for Technology Purchasers NewsFactor Sites:       NewsFactor.com     Enterprise Security Today     CRM Daily     Business Report     Sci-Tech Today  
   
This ad will display for the next 20 seconds. Click for more information, or
Home Enterprise I.T. Cloud Computing Applications Hardware More Topics...
Eliminate costly downtime!
Find out how with Free White Paper
& enter to win a Samsung Galaxy Note

www.apc.com
World Wide Web
Real-time info services with Neustar
Average Rating:
Rate this article:  
Study Finds 19 Clicks Separate Every Web Page
Study Finds 19 Clicks Separate Every Web Page

By Barry Levine
February 20, 2013 2:19PM

    Bookmark and Share
Physicist Albert-Laszlo Barabasi built a simulated model of the Internet, which led him to believe that the 19-connections rule will still hold even as the Web continues to grow. He found that most of the pages on the Web are linked to only a few other Web pages, but a few places on the Web -- such as search engines, indexes or news sites -- are highly connected.
 



You've probably heard that every human on earth is separated from every other by six people, each of whom is connected in some way to the next one. This factoid became the basis for the title of a hit Broadway play, Six Degrees of Separation, and for a parlor game, Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon. Now, a new study ventures a digital take on the same idea, and concludes that no two Web pages are more than 19 clicks apart.

Of course, any Web page could link to any other page via a direct link, but the study supposes that no specific links are created, and that only existing links are used. The study has been published in the scientific journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society by physicist Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, who is affiliated with both the Department of Physics at Northeastern University and the Harvard Medical School.

Barabasi, a network expert, estimates that there are more than a trillion documents on the Web, embedded in an estimated 14 billion Web pages. Barabasi counts every image or video as a document, as well as the page itself and other files.

Nodes of the Web

Barabasi built a simulated model of the Internet, which led him to believe that the 19-connections rule will still hold even as the Web continues to grow. He found that most of the pages on the Web are linked to only a few other Web pages, but a relatively few places on the Web -- such as search engines, indexes or large news sites -- are highly connected. These are the nodes of the Web, acting essentially as Kevin Bacon does in the game referencing his name -- a circuit switcher through which connections are made from most pages to other pages.

Barabasi believes that this self-organization of the Web has taken place because, not unlike the six connections theory about human relationships, the Web is a human construct that tends to group itself into related communities. His research indicates that the links between pages, when seen as patterns across the Web, are not random but are the result of such social groupings.

Web Vulnerabilities

Whether looking at a small portion of the Web or across the entire ecosystem, Barabasi found that the same 19-link rule of connectedness often applies. One thing this structure reveals is the potential vulnerability of Web, since taking out key nodes could cripple the entire Net's connectedness.

The six degrees of separation concept proposes that every person in the world is only six or fewer people removed from anyone else. Social psychologist Stanley Milgram originated the six-degrees concept in 1967, based on a study of 296 volunteers.

A 2011 study by Facebook and the University of Milan, when Facebook had a mere 800 million users, found that 99.6 percent were connected through five other users to all other users, while 92 percent were connected by only four others. In any single country, the average was three people-connections.

The Kevin Bacon game is intended to show a connection of six people or less between that actor and virtually every other actor in Hollywood.
 

Tell Us What You Think
Comment:

Name:



Get Powerful App Acceleration with Cisco. In a world where time is money, you need to accelerate the speed at which data moves through your data center. Cisco UCS Invicta delivers powerful, easy-to-manage application acceleration for data-intensive workloads. So you can make decisions faster and outpace the competition. Learn More.


 World Wide Web
1.   Tor Internet Privacy Service Breached
2.   Amazon Invests $2B To Grow in India
3.   Many Sites Are Studying Consumers
4.   Facebook To Force Use of Messenger
5.   OkCupid Experiments with Daters


advertisement
OkCupid Experiments with Daters
Unethical without user consent?
Average Rating:
Radical.FM's Freemium Biz Model
Online radio startup asks for donations.
Average Rating:
Many Sites Are Studying Consumers
Facebook and OKCupid are not alone.
Average Rating:
Product Information and Resources for Technology You Can Use To Boost Your Business

Network Security Spotlight
New 'Backoff' Malware Slips Undetected into Retail Systems
'Malicious actors' are using a new variety of malware to access consumer payment data remotely through point-of-sale systems, according to a report from the Department of Homeland Security.
 
IBM Beefs Up Identity Intelligence Security Solutions
Big Blue is betting big on identity intelligence. IBM just acquired a private firm with security software to govern user access to apps and data across cloud and on-premise environments.
 
USB Security Flaw Lets Hackers Hijack PCs
Hackers can use the firmware that controls USB functions to take control of computers, say security experts. That means there may be a new class of attack for which there are no defenses.
 

Enterprise Hardware Spotlight
AMD's ARM-Based Opteron Out in $3K Dev Kit
It's dubbed "Seattle" and it's AMD's first 64-bit ARM-based Opteron processor. The low-power chip is being released as part of AMD’s Opteron A1100-series developer kit, and aimed at high-end data center needs.
 
Apple Updates MacBook Pros, Cuts Prices Up to $100
The popular MacBook Pro laptop line just got an update and a price cut of as much as $100. The MacBook Pro with Retina display now includes faster processors and double the memory.
 
Dell, BlackBerry Not Sweating Apple-IBM Alliance
IBM's recent move to partner with Apple to sell iPhones and iPads loaded with corporate applications has excited investors in both companies, but two rivals say they are unperturbed for now.
 

Mobile Technology Spotlight
BlackBerry Messenger Now Available on Windows Phone
BlackBerry's free Messenger chatting and voice app is out of beta and widely available for Windows Phone users, the company said. BBM offers secure messaging, Groups, Voice, Channels and more.
 
Virgin Mobile Offers Custom Smartphone Plans
As the wireless carrier wars continue heating up, Virgin Mobile just threw the customization coal onto the fire. The firm has debuted a no-annual-contract plan with rates based on individual use.
 
Collaboration Provider Asana Revamps Mobile App
Asana, a collaboration software provider started by a Facebook founder, is now out with a rebuilt native iOS mobile app. It replaces one that even the company admits was not up to par.
 

Navigation
NewsFactor Network
Home/Top News | Enterprise I.T. | Cloud Computing | Applications | Hardware | Mobile Tech | Big Data | Communications
World Wide Web | Network Security | Data Storage | CRM Systems | Microsoft/Windows | Apple/Mac | Linux/Open Source | Personal Tech
Press Releases
NewsFactor Network Enterprise I.T. Sites
NewsFactor Technology News | Enterprise Security Today | CRM Daily

NewsFactor Business and Innovation Sites
Sci-Tech Today | NewsFactor Business Report

NewsFactor Services
FreeNewsFeed | Free Newsletters

About NewsFactor Network | How To Contact Us | Article Reprints | Careers @ NewsFactor | Services for PR Pros | Top Tech Wire | How To Advertise

Privacy Policy | Terms of Service
© Copyright 2000-2014 NewsFactor Network. All rights reserved. Article rating technology by Blogowogo. Member of Accuserve Ad Network.