A new study suggests that under-exercising, rather than overeating, may be at the heart of America's obesity epidemic. Researchers from Stanford University School of Medicine report a strong correlation between the rise in obesity and a striking drop in the amount of time Americans spend exercising when not at work over the last 22 years.
Their analysis uncovered no evidence that American's have increased their daily calorie count in the same time period.
"We wouldn't say that calories don't count, but the main takeaway is that we have to look very carefully at physical activity. The problem is not all in the intake of calories," said Dr. Uri Ladabaum, a professor of gastroenterology at Stanford Medical School. Ladabaum is also the lead author of the study that will be published in the August issue of the American Journal of Medicine.
The study relies on data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 2010, which Ladabaum and his team used to look for trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity and caloric intake in the last two decades.
The most startling finding in the study is the drop in the amount of exercise Americans do in our free time. The researchers found that from 1988 to 2010, the percentage of adults who reported doing no exercise in their free time grew dramatically from 19% to 52% in women, and from 11% to 43% in men.
"We suspected there was a trend in that direction, but not that magnitude," said Ladabaum. "People can get exercise in other ways, but most people don't walk or bike to work, and most people are not in jobs that require physical activity."
At the same time, the researchers found that the prevalence of obesity increased from 25% to 35% in women, and from 20% to 35% in men. In that time period the proportion of normal weight men and women dropped, while the proportion of overweight men and women remained the same.
But here comes the surprising part: The researchers did not find any evidence that people were ingesting more calories on a daily basis in 2010 than they were in 1988.
"The one caveat here is that the amount of calorie intake was based on self report, so it is possible people were not recalling correctly what they ate, or not reporting correctly," said Ladabaum.
Ladabaum notes that the study can tell us only that a major drop in time spent exercising occurred at the same time as a rise in obesity, not that one caused the other. (continued...)
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